References to Dom's in-site

References to [About milk kefir and water kefir]

1. Beatrice Trum Hunter's Fact/Book on Yogurt, Kefir & Other Milk Cultures [1973] ISBN: 87983-033-175

1a. La Rivière JW, Kooiman P, Schmidt K. [1967]. Kefiran, a novel polysaccharide produced in the kefir grain by Lactobacillus brevis. Arch Mikrobiol.;59[1]:269-278.

2. Arihara K, Tobo T, Adachi S. [1990].Immunofluorescence microscopic studies on distribution of L. kefiranofaciens and L. kefir in kefir grains. Int. Jnl. Food Micro.;11:127-134

2a. Kooiman P. [1968]. The chemical structure of kefiran, the water-soluble polysaccharide of the kefir grain. Carbohydrate Res.;7[2]:200-211

3. Murofushi M, Mizuguchi J, Aibara K, Matuhasi T. et al. Immunopharmacology [1986]. Immunopotentiative effect of polysaccharide from kefir grain, KGF-C, administered orally in mice.;121:29-35

4. Kubo M, Odani T, Nakamura S, Tokumaru S, Matsuda H, et al. [1992]. Pharmacological study on kefir-a fermented milk product in Caucasus. I. On antitumor activity (1). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kinki University, Osaka, Japan. Yakugaku Zasshi;112:489-495

5. Shiomi M, Sasaki K, Murofushi M, Aibara K. et al. [1982]. Antitumor activity in mice of orally administered polysaccharide from Kefir grain. Jpn. Jnl. Med. Sci. Biol.;35:75-80

6. Shiomi M, Aibara K, Murofushi M. et al. [1983]. Effect of orally administered polysaccharide from kefir grain on delayed-type hypersensitivity and tumor growth in mice. Jpn. Jnl. Med. Sci. Biol.;36:49-53

Schneedorf M, Anfiteatro D. [2004] Fitoterapicos Anti-inflamatorios by Carvalho, JCT. Quefir, um probiotico produzido por microorganismos encapsulados e inflamacao. Chapter 33:443-462. / Diniz RO, Garla LK, Schneedorf M, Carvalho JCT. [2003]. Study of anti-inflammatory activity of Tibetan mushroom, a symbiotic culture of bacteria and fungi encapsulated into a polysaccharide matrix. Pharmacol Res.;47[1]:49-52

8. Maeda H, Zhu X, Omura K, Suzuki S, Kitamura S. [2004]. Effects of an exopolysaccharide (kefiran) on lipids, blood pressure, blood glucose, and constipation. Biofactors.;22[1/4]:197-200.

8a. Chujian C, Hing MC, Stan K. [2007]. Kefir extracts suppress in vitro proliferation of estrogen-dependent Human breast cancer cells but not normal Mammary epithelial cells. Jnl. of Med. Food.;10[3]:416-422. People's Rep. of China.

8b. Osada K, Nagira K, Teruya K, Tachibana H, Shirahata S, Murakami H. [1993-94] Enhancement of interferon-beta production with sphingomyelin from fermented milk. Grad. School of Gen. Res. Tech., Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. Biotherapy;7[2]:115-123.

9. Pidoux M, Brillouet JM, Quemener B. [1988]. Characterization of the polysaccharide from a Lactobacillus Brevis and from sugary kefir grains. Biotechnology Letters;10[6]:415-420 [Lab. de Genie Alimentaire, ENITTIAA, Chemin de la Geraudiere, 44072 Antes Cedex, France].

10. Moinas M, Horisberger M, Bauer H. [1980] The structural organization of the Tibi grains as revealed by light, scanning and transmission microscopy. Archives of Microbiology; [128]:157-161

10a. Dmitrichenko M.I. [1974] Microstructure and composition of kefir grains [Lecture]:43-46 [Kemerovskii Tekh. Inst. Pishchevoi Promyshlennosti, Kemerovo, former USSR]

11. Molska I, Kocon J, Zmarlicki S. [1980] Electron microscopy studies on structures and microflora of kefir grains. Acta Alimentaria Polonica.; 6[3]:145-154 [Dep. of Food Tech., Warsaw Agric. Univ. Warsaw, Poland].

12. Toba T, Arihara K, Adachi S. [1990] Distribution of microorganisms with particular reference to encapsulated bacteria in kefir grains. Int. Jnl. of Food Micro.;10[3/4]:219-224. [Lab. of Anim. Prod. Tech. Fac. of Agric., Tohoku Univ., Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi 1-1, Aobaku, Sendai 981. Jpn.].

13. Microorganisms in Processing of Dairy Products.: 284.

14. Encyclopaedia of food science, food technology, and nutrition. [1993]:1804-1808. Edited by Macrae R, Robinson RK, Sadler MJ.

15. Rosi J. [1978]. Kefir micro-organisms: yeasts. Scienza e Tecnica Lattiero-Casearia.;29[2]:59-67.

16. Garrote, Graciela L., et. al. [2001]. Chemical and microbiological characterisation of kefir grains. Jnl. of Dairy Res.;68[4]:639-652. Abstract

17. Sedova NN. [1974] Detection and quantitive determination of Shigella sonnei in milk and milk products. Voprosy Pitaniya.;[4]:42-45.

17a. St-Onge,
et al. [2002] Commercial [ad. DN. Anfiteatro] Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine.;2:1 Complete BioMed Article

18. Sukhov SV, Kalamkarova LI, Il'chenko LA. et. al. [1986] Microflora changes in the small and large intestines of chronic enteritis patients on diet therapy including sour milk products. Vopr Pitan;4[1]:4-7

19. Oleinichenko EV, Mitrokhin SD, Minikov VE. et. al. [1999]. Effectiveness of aciprole in prevention of enteric dysbacteriosis due to antibacterial therapy. Antibiot Khimioter;44[2]:3-5

20. Zubillaga M, Weill R, Postaire E, Goldman C, Car, R, Boccio J. [2001]. Effects of probiotic and functional foods and their use in different diseases. Nutritional Research;21:569-579 PDF Publication

21. Bugrova VI, Bursak GZ, Rudykh KI, Muzyukina TM, Fel'dberg FL, Shlyakhova VV, Zhelikhovskaya FM. [1969] Bacteriological evaluation of kefir. Moskovskii Nauchno-issled. Inst. Gigieny imeni F. F. Erismana, Moscow, Former USSR. Gigiena i Sanitariya.;34[7]:91-92 [Russian Doc.]

22. Drewek Z, Czarnocka-Roczniokowa B. [1986].Microbiological processes in folacin synthesis in kefir. Acta Alimentaria Polonica;12[1]:39-45. [Dep. of food Eng. & Biotch., Argric. & Tch. Uni., Olsztyn Poland]

23. Alam K, Mahpara S. [2003]. Role of Diet, Nutrients, Spices and Natural Products in Diabetes Mellitus. Pakistan Jnl. of Nutr.;2[1]:1-12. [Dep. of Hum. Nutn., NWFP Agric. Uni., Peshawar, Pakistan].

24. Farnworth E.R. [1999]. Kefir: from folklore to regulatory approval. Journal of Nutraceuticals, Functional and Medical Foods;1:57-68.

25. H. Maeda, H. Mizumoto, M. Suzuki, K. Tsuji [Jan 5/2005]. Effects of Kefiran-Feeding on Fecal Cholesterol Excretion, Hepatic Injury and Intestinal Histamine Concentration in Rats. Biosci. Microflora;24[2];35-40. [Jpn.]

References for Tables in section
Microflora of Milk Kefir Grains at

Fernando L-O, Aito R, Natalia E, Javier G. [2006]. Rev. Iberoam Micol.;23:67-74

Encyclopaedia of Food Science, Food Technology and Nutrition. [1993]:1804-1808 Edited by Macrae R, Robinson RK, Sadler MJ.

Vancanneyt M, Mengaud J. et. al. [2004]. Reclassification of Lactobacillus kefirgranum Takizawa et al. 1994 as Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens subsp. kefirgranum subsp. nov. and emended description of L. kefiranofaciens. Fujisawa et al. 1988. Int. Jnl. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.;54[Pt 2]:551-556.

International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology [1994];44[3]:435-439.

* Loretana T, Mosterta JF, Viljoen BC. [2003]. Microbial flora associated with South African household kefir. S. Afr. Jnl. Sci.;99[1/2].

A. Dobson et. al. [2011] High-throughput sequence-based analysis of the bacterial composition of kefir and an associated kefir grain. FEMS Microbiology Letters, Vol. 320;[1]:July 2011:56–62  [Re. Bifidobacterium]

** Rea MC, Lennartsson T. et. al. [1996]. Irish kefir-like grains; their structure, microbial composition and fermentation kinetics. Jnl. of Appl. Bact.;81[1]:83-94.


Angulo, L., Lopez, E. and Lema, C. 1993. Microflora present in kefir grains of the Galician region (North-West of Spain). Journal of Dairy Research 60: 263-267

Ottogalli, G., Galli, A., Resmini, P. and Volonterio, G. 1973. Composizione microbiologia, chimica ed ultrastruttura dei ganuli di kefir. Annali di Microbiolgia 23: 109-121

References for Web Page - [Recipes for making milk kefir and water kefir and other probiotic goodies]

For Section Freshly Strained kefir

. Safonova TIa, Iatsyk GV, Iurkov IuA, et al. [1979] Effect of different types of feeding on the fatty acid makeup of the blood serum in premature infants. Vopr Pitan;6:44-49.

For Section About Rinsing Kefir Grains

1. Babina NA. [1973] Effect of washing of kefir grains on starter microflora. Molochnaya Promyshlennost'.;[5]:8-10 [Vses. Nauchna-issled, Inst. Molochnoi Promyshlennosti, Moscow, Former USSR]

2. Dmitrichenko MI. [1974] Microstructure and composition of kefir grains [Lecture]:43-46 [Ru] [Kemerovskii Tekh. Inst. Pishchevoi Promyshlennosti, Kemerovo, Former USSR]

3. Korleva NS, Babina NA. [1975] Recommendations for the cultivation of kefir grains and the production of kefir starter and kefir. Molochnaya Promyshlennost' ;[8]:43-44 [Vses. Nauchna-issled, Inst. Molochnoi Promyshlennosti, Moscow, Former USSR].

For Section Storing kefir to increase nutritional value and reduce lactose content

Dalu JM, Feresu SB. [1996] Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in three Zimbabwean fermented milk products. Jnl. of Food Prod.;59[4]:379-383.

2. Sedova NN. [1974] Detection and quantitive determination of Shigella sonnei in milk and milk products. Voprosy Pitaniya.;[4]:42-45.

. Drewek Z, Czarnocka-Roczniokowa B. [1986] Microbiological processes in folacin synthesis in kefir. Acta Alimentaria Polonica.;12[1]:39-45. [Dep. of Food Eng. & Biotch., Argric. & Tech. Uni. Olsztyn Poland].

For Section Recipes > Herbal Kefir Liver Blush

1. Sozmen M1, Erginsoy SD, Cenesiz S, Devrim AK.[2005]. The Protective Effect of Kefir and Vitamin C on Azoxymethane Induced toxicity and Induction of Metallothionein in Mice. Scand. Jnl. Lab. Anim. Sci.;32[4];211-220.

References for web page-

1. Guzel-Seydim Z, Seydim AC, Greene AK. 2000. Organic acids and volatile flavor components evolved during refrigerated storage of kefir. Jnl. of Dairy Sci., Dep. of Animal & Vet. Sci., Clemson University, SC 29634-0361, USA.

2. Drewek Z, Czarnocka-Roczniokowa B. 1986. Microbiological processes in folacin synthesis in kefir. Acta Alimentaria Polonica 12[1]:39-45. Dep. of food Eng. & Biotch., Argric. & Tech. Uni., Olsztyn Poland.

3. GuzelL-Seydim ZB, Seydim AC, Greene AK, Tas T. 2006. Determination of antimutagenic properties of acetone extracted fermented milks and changes in their total fatty acid profiles including conjugated linoleic acids. International Jnl. of Dairy Tech.; 59[3]:209-215.

4. Vujicic IF, Vulic M, Könyves T. 1992. Activity of kefir cultures in the assimilation of cholesterol in milk. Biotechnol. Letters.;14[8]:47–850.

5. Safonova TIa, Iatsyk GV, Iurkov IuA, et al. [1979] Effect of different types of feeding on the fatty acid makeup of the blood serum in premature infants. Vopr Pitan.;[6]:44-49.

For section References to some of the figures represented in Table 1

Hallé C, Leroi X, Dousset & M. Pidoux 1994. Les Kéfirs : des associations bactéries lactiques-levures. In Roissart De H, Luquet FM. [Eds], Bactéries lactiques: Aspects fondamentaux et Technilogiques ;2:169-182 Uriange, France, lorica,Rener E, Renz-Schaven. 1986. Nahrwerttabellen für milch und milchprodukte. Verlag B. Renner. Köhner KG. Gieben, Germany.

Akalin AS, Gönç S, Dinkçi N. 2004. Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Thiamin in Dairy Products. International Jnl. of Food Sci. and Nutn.; 55[4]:345-349.

For section
Characteristics of Milk Kefir During Storage

Irigoyen A, Arana I, Castiella M, Torre P, and Ibáñez FC. 2005. Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of kefir during storage. Food Chem.;90[4]:613-620.

References to page

For section

1. Liu JR, Chen MJ, Lin CW. [2005] Antimutagenic and antioxidant properties of milk-kefir and soymilk-kefir. Jrnl. Agric. Food Chem. Apr 6, 2005;53[7]:2467-2474

2. Kuximoto K-I, Hemlrich A, Melricko P, Chen L-P, J. Sato H, Shirahata S, Tokumaru S, Barns D. Animal Cell Tech. [2001]. The protective anti-oxidant effects of kefir on SFME neural stem cells. ;12:353-358

3. Masayoshi Saito, Eizo Tatsumi and Li Li-te. [2003] Food Science and Technology Division, JIRCAS China Agri. Uni.

For section Heart and Arterial Disease in parts of Japan is Rare...

1. Heaney RP. [1998] Calcium: How your diet affects requirements. Veg. Nutr. and Health Letter Feb. 1998;1[3]:1-2.



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